On this page you can find a selection of references regarding studies on CRA, CRAFT and ACRA.


Abbott, P. J., Weller, S. B., Delaney, H. D., & Moore, B. A. (1998). Community reinforcement approach in the treatment of opiate addicts. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 24, 17-30.

Azrin, N.H. (1976). Improvements in the community reinforcement approach to alcoholism. Behavior Research and Therapy, 14, 339-348.

Azrin, N.H., Sisson, R.W., Meyers, R.J., & Godley, M.D. (1982). Outpatient alcoholism treatment by community reinforcement and disulfiram therapy. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 13, 105-112.

Bickel, W. K., Amass, L., Higgins, S. T., Badger, G. J., & Esch, R. A. (1997). Effects of adding behavioral treatment to opioid detoxification with buprenorphine. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 65, 803-810.

Higgins, S. T., Sigmon, S. C., Wong, C. J., Heil, S. H., Badger, G. J., Donham, R., Dantona, R. L., & Anthony, S. (2003). Community reinforcement therapy for cocaine-dependent outpatients. Archives of General Psychiatry, 60, 1043-1052.

Hunt, G.M., & Azrin, N.H. (1973). A community-reinforcement approach to alcoholism. Behavior Research and Therapy, 11, 91-104.

Mallams, J. H., Godley, M. D., Hall, G. M., Meyers, R. J. (1982). A social systems approach to resocializing alcoholics in the community. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 43, 1115-1123.

Meyers, R.J., & Smith, J.E. (1995). Clinical guide to alcohol treatment: The Community Reinforcement Approach. New York: Guilford Press.

Meyers, R.J., & Godley, M.D. (2001). The community reinforcement approach. In R.J. Meyers & W.R. Miller (eds.), A community reinforcement approach to addiction treatment (pp. 1-7). Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press.

Meyers, R., J., Smith, J. E., & Lash, D. N. (2003). The community reinforcement approach. In M Galanter’s (Ed.), Recent developments in alcoholism, Volume XVI, New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum.

Miller, W.R., Meyers, R.J., & Hiller-Sturmhofel, S. (1999). The community-reinforcement approach. Alcohol Research & Health, 23, 116-121.

Roozen, H.G., Boulogne, J.J., Van Tulder, M.W., Van den Brink, W., De Jong, C.A., Kerkhof, A.J. (2004). A systematic review of the effectiveness of the community reinforcement approach in alcohol, cocaine and opioid addiction. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 74,1-13.

Roozen, H. G., Kerkhof, A. J., van den Brink, W. (2003). Experiences with an out-patient relapse program (community reinforcement approach) combined with naltrexone in the treatment of opioid-dependence: Effect on addictive behaviors and the predictive value of psychiatric comorbidity. European Addiction Research, 9, 53-58.

Roozen, H. G., Van Beers, S. E., Weevers, H. J., Bretler, M. H., Willemsen, M. C., Postmus, P. E., & Kerkhof, A. J. (2006). Effects on smoking cessation: Naltrexone combined with a cognitive behavioral treatment based on the community reinforcement approach. Substance Use and Misuse, 41, 45-60.

Schottenfeld, R. S., Pantalon, M. V., Chawarski, M. C., & Pakes, J. (2000). Community reinforcement approach for combined opioid and cocaine dependence: Patterns of engagement in alternate activities. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 18, 255-261.

Slesnick, N., Prestopnik, J.L., Meyers, R.J., & Glassman, M. (2007). Treatment outcome for street-living, homeless youth. Addictive Behaviors, 32, 1237-1251.

Smith, J.E., & Meyers, R.J. (1995). The community reinforcement approach. In R.K. Hester & W.R. Miller (eds.), Handbook of alcoholism treatment approaches (pp. 251-266). Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.

Smith, J. E., Meyers, R. J., & Milford, J. (2002). Community reinforcement approach and community reinforcement and family training. In R. Hester & W. R. Miller’s (2003), Handbook of alcoholism treatment approaches: Effective alternatives (3rd ed.), Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

Smith, J. E., Meyers, R. J., & Delaney, H. (1998). The community reinforcement approach with homeless alcohol-dependent individuals. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 66, 541-548.

Smith, J. E., Meyers, R. J., & Miller, W. R. (2001). The community reinforcement approach to the treatment of substance use disorders. The American Journal on Addictions, 10 (Suppl.), 51-59.

Smith, J. E., Milford, J. L., & Meyers, R. J. (2004). CRA and CRAFT: Behavioral approaches to treating substance-abusing individuals. The Behavior Analyst Today, 5, 391-403.


Azrin, N.H., Acierno, R., Kogan, E.S., Donohue, B., Besalel, V.A., & McMahon, P.T. (1996). Follow-up results of supportive versus behavioral therapy for illicit drug use. Behavior Research and Therapy, 34, 41-46.

Azrin, N.H., Donohue, B., Besalel, V.A., Kogan, E.S., & Acierno, R. (1994). Youth drug treatment: A controlled outcome study. Journal of Child & Adolescent Substance Abuse, 3, 1-16.

Azrin, N.H., McMahon, P.T., Donohue, B., Besalel, V.A., Lapinski, K.J., Kogan, E.S., Acierno, R.E., & Galloway, E. (1994). Behavior therapy for drug abuse: A controlled treatment outcome study. Behavior Resesarch and Therapy, 32, 857-866.

Dennis, M.L., Godley, S.H., Diamond, G.S., Tims, F.M., Babor, T., Donaldson, J., Liddle, H.A., Titus, J.C., Kaminer, Y., Webb, C., Hamilton, N., & Funk, R.R. (2004). The Cannabis Youth Treatment(CYT) study: Main findings from two randomized trials. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 27, 197-213.

Diamond, G.S., Godley, S.H., Liddle, H.A., Sampl, S., Webb, C., Tims, F.M., & Meyers, R.J. (2002). Five outpatient treatment models for adolescent marijuana use: A description of the Cannabis Youth Treatment interventions. Addiction, 97, S70-S83.

Diamond, G.S., Leckrone, J., Dennis, M.L., & Godley, S.H. (2006). The Cannabis Youth Treatment study: Clinical and empirical developments. In R. Roffman, & R. Stephens (eds.), Cannabis dependence: Its nature, consequences, and treatment. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

French, M.T., Roebuck, M.C., Dennis, M.L., Diamond, G.S., Godley, S.H., Tims, F.M., Webb, C., & Herrell, J.M. (2002). The economic cost of outpatient marijuana treatment for adolescents: Findings from a multisite experiment. Addiction, 97, S84-S97.

Garner, B.R., Barnes, B.N., & Godley, S.H. (2009). Monitoring fidelity in the Adolescent Community Reinforcement Approach (A-CRA): The training process for A-CRA raters. Journal of BehaviorAnalysis in Health, Sports, Fitness, and Medicine, 2, 43-54.

Garner, B.R., Godley, M.D., Funk, R.R., Dennis, M.L., & Godley, S.H. (2007). The impact of continuing care adherence on environmental risks, substance use and substance-related problems following adolescent residential treatment. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 21 (4), 488-497.

Garner, B.R., Godley, S.H., Funk, R.R., Dennis, M.L., Smith, J.E., & Godley, M.D. (2009). Exposure to Adolescent Community Reinforcement Approach treatment procedures as a mediator of the relationship between adolescent substance abuse treatment retention and outcome. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 36, 252-264.

Godley M.D., & Godley, S.H. (in press). Continuing care following residential treatment: History, current practice, critical issues, and emerging approaches. In N. Jainchill (ed.), Understanding and treatingadolescent substance use disorders. Kingston, NJ: Civic Research Institute.

Godley, M.D., Godley, S.H., Dennis, M.L., Funk, R.R., & Passetti, L.L. (2002). Preliminary outcomes from the assertive continuing care experiment for adolescents discharged from residential treatment. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 23, 21-32.

Godley, M.D., Godley, S.H., Dennis, M.L., Funk, R.R., & Passetti, L.L. (2007). The effectiveness of assertive continuing care on continuing care linkage, adherence, and abstinence following residential treatment for substance use disorders in adolescents. Addiction, 102, 81-93.

Godley, S.H., Dennis, M.L., Godley, M.D., & Funk, RR. (2004). Thirty-month relapse trajectory cluster groups among adolescents discharged from outpatient treatment. Addiction, 99 (Suppl. 2), 129-139.

Godley, S.H., Godley, M.D., & Dennis, M.L. (2001). The Assertive Aftercare Protocol for adolescent substance abusers. In E.F. Wagner & H.B. Waldron (eds.), Innovations in adolescent substance abuse interventions (pp. 313-331). New York: Pergamon.

Godley, S.H., Godley, M.D., Karvinen, T., Slown, L.L., & Wright, K.L. (2006). The Assertive Continuing Care (ACC) protocol: A clinician’s manual for working with adolescents after residential treatment of alcohol and other substance use disorders (2nd ed.). Bloomington, IL: Lighthouse Institute.

Godley, S.H., Godley, M.D., Wright, K.L., Funk, R.R., & Petry, N. (2008). Contingent reinforcement of personal goal activities for adolescents with substance use disorders during post-residential continuing care. American Journal on Addictions, 17 (4), 278-286.

Godley, S.H., Meyers, R.J., Smith, J.E., Godley, M.D., Titus, J.C., Karvinen, T., Dent, G., Passetti, L.L., & Kelberg, P. (2001). The Adolescent Community Reinforcement Approach (ACRA) for adolescent cannabis users (DHHS Publication No. (SMA) 01-3489, Cannabis Youth Treatment (CYT) Manual Series, Volume 4). Rockville, MD: Center for Substance Abuse Treatment, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Retrieved from

Godley, S.H., Smith, J.E., Meyers, R.J., & Godley, M.D. (in press). Adolescent Community Reinforcement Approach (A-CRA). In D.W. Springer and A. Rubin (eds.), Substance Abuse Treatment for Youths and Adults. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Godley, S.H., White, W.L., Diamond, G.S., Passetti, L.L., & Titus, J.C. (2001). Therapists’ reactions to manual-guided therapies for the treatment of adolescent marijuana users. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 8, 405-417.


Kirby, K. C., Marlowe, D. B., Festinger, D. S., Garvey, K. A., & LaMonaca, V. Community reinforcement training for family and significant others of drug abusers: A unilateral intervention to increase treatment entry of drug users. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 56, 85-96, 1999.

Meyers, R.J., Dominguez, T.P., & Smith, J.E. (1996). Community reinforcement training with concerned others. In V.B. Van Hasselt & M. Hersen (eds.), Sourcebook of psychological treatment manuals for adult disorders (pp. 257-294). New York: Plenum Press.

Meyers, R.J., Miller, W.R., Hill, D.E., & Tonigan, J.S. (1999). Community reinforcement and family training (CRAFT): Engaging unmotivated drug users in treatment. Journal of Substance Abuse, 10, 291-308.

Meyers, R.J., Miller, W.R., Smith, J.E., & Tonigan, J.S. (2002). A randomized trial of two methods for engaging treatment-refusing drug users through concerned significant others. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 70, 1182-1185.

Meyers, R.J., & Smith, J.E. (1997). Getting off the fence: Procedures to engage treatment-resistant drinkers. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 14, 467-472.

Meyers, R.J., & Wolfe, B.L. (2004). Get your loved one sober: Alternatives to nagging, pleading, and threatening. Center City, MN: Hazelden.

Roozen, H.G., de Waart, R., & van der Kroft, P. (2010). Community reinforcement and family training: an effective option to engage treatment-resistant substance-abusing individuals in treatment. Addiction, 105, 1729-38.

Sisson, R.W., & Azrin, N.H. (1986). Family-member involvement to initiate and promote treatment of problem drinkers. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 17, 15-21.

Smith, J.E., & Meyers, R.J. (2005). Motivating substance abusers to enter treatment: Working with family members. New York: Guilford Press.

Smith, J.E., Meyers, R.J., & Delaney, H.D. (1998). The community reinforcement approach with homeless alcohol-dependent individuals. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 66, 541-548.

Smith, J. E., Milford, J. L., & Meyers, R. J. (2004). CRA and CRAFT: Behavioral approaches to treating substance-abusing individuals. The Behavior Analyst Today, 5, 391-403.

Smith, J. E., Meyers, R. J., & Austin, J. L. (2008). Working with family members to engage treatment-refusing drinkers: The CRAFT program. Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly, 26, 169-193.

Waldron, H.B., Kern-Jones, S., Turner, C.W., Peterson, T.R., Ozechowski, T.J. (2007). Engaging resistant adolescents in drug abuse treatment. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 32, 133-42.

Wolfe, B.L., & Meyers, R.J. (1999). Cost-effective alcohol treatment: The Community Reinforcement Approach. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, 6, 105-109.

Scroll naar boven